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A lot of these terms will have definitions pulled from a variety of sources. They are all important to know at times when identifying all sorts of different fungi. 

MUSHROOM TERMINOLOGY - adding more often!

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with a peppery, burning taste


(referring to physical shape) sharp


(gills) attached to the stem over all or most of their total depth


(gills) tapering in depth toward stem so that the attachment is narrow


The fungal order Agaricales, also known as gilled mushrooms (for their distinctive gills) or euagarics, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms. The order has 33 extant families, 413 genera, and over 13,000 described species,[4] along with six extinct genera known only from the fossil record.[5][6][1] They range from the ubiquitous common mushroom to the deadly destroying angel and the hallucinogenic fly agaric to the bioluminescent jack-o-lantern mushroom.


Agaricomycetes includes ca. 21,000 described species of mushroom-forming fungi that function as decayers, pathogens, and mutualists in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. The morphological diversity of Agaricomycete fruiting bodies is unparalleled in any other group of fungi, ranging from simple corticioid forms to complex, developmentally integrated forms (e.g., stinkhorns). In recent years, understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and biodiversity of Agaricomycetes has advanced dramatically, through a combination of polymerase chain reaction-based multilocus phylogenetics, phylogenomics, and molecular environmental surveys. Agaricomycetes is strongly supported as a clade and includes several groups formerly regarded as Heterobasidiomycetes, namely the Auriculariales, Sebacinales, and certain Cantharellales (Tulasnellaceae and Ceratobasidiaceae). The Agaricomycetes can be divided into 20 mutually exclusive clades that have been treated as orders. This chapter presents an overview of the phylogenetic diversity of Agaricomycetes, emphasizing recent molecular phylogenetic studies.


Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with over 400 members worldwide[2][3] and possibly again as many disputed or newly-discovered species. The genus includes the common ("button") mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the field mushroom (A. campestris), the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West.

Members of Agaricus are characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus, from the underside of which grow a number of radiating plates or gills, on which are produced the naked spores. They are distinguished from other members of their family, Agaricaceae, by their chocolate-brown spores. Members of Agaricus also have a stem or stipe, which elevates it above the object on which the mushroom grows, or substrate, and a partial veil, which protects the developing gills and later forms a ring or annulus on the stalk.


Agaricaceae species use a wide variety of fruit body morphology. Although the pileate form (i.e., with a cap and stipe) is predominant, gasteroid and secotioid forms are known. In pileate species, the gills are typically thin, and free from attachment to the stipe. Caps are scurfy to smooth, and range from roughly flat to umbonate. They typically have a centrally attached stipe and a membrane-like partial veil.[8] The species formerly classified in the family Lycoperdaceae are also known as the "true puffballs". Their fruiting bodies are round and are composed of a tough skin surrounding a mass of spores. When they mature, the skin splits open and they release their spores.

The spore print color of Agaricaceae species is highly variable, ranging from white to greenish to ochraceous to pink or sepia; rusty-brown or cinnamon brown colours are absent. Microscopically, the spore surface ranges from smooth to ornamented, and the presence of a germ pore is variable. Amyloidity (i.e. sensitivity to staining in Melzer's reagent) is also variable. The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are usually small, four-spored, and may have interspersed cystidia.[8]


Amanitaceae is a family of mushroom-forming fungi. Amanita Pers. is one of the most specious and best-known fungal genera.[1] The family, also commonly called the amanita family, is in order Agaricales, the gilled mushrooms. The family consists primarily of the large genus Amanita, but also includes the smaller genera AmarrendiaCatatramaLimacellaLimacellopsisSaproamanitaTorrendia and Zhuliangomyces.


Both Amarrendia and Torrendia are considered to be synonymous with Amanita but appear quite different because they are secotioid. The species are usually found in woodlands. The most characteristic emerge from an egg-like structure formed by the universal veil.

This family contains several species valued for edibility and flavor, and other deadly poisonous ones. More than half the cases of mushroom poisoning stem from members of this family. The most toxic members of this group have names that warn of the poisonous nature, but others, of varying degrees of toxicity, do not.


The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics, including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide, as well as some well-regarded edible species. This genus is responsible for approximately 95% of the fatalities resulting from mushroom poisoning, with the death cap accounting for about 50% on its own. The most potent toxin present in these mushrooms is α-Amanitin.

The genus also contains many edible mushrooms, but mycologists discourage mushroom hunters, other than experts, from selecting any of these for human consumption. Nonetheless, in some cultures, the larger local edible species of Amanita are mainstays of the markets in the local growing season. Samples of this are Amanita zambiana and other fleshy species in central AfricaA. basii and similar species in MexicoA. caesarea and the "Blusher" Amanita rubescens in Europe, and A. chepangiana in South-East Asia. Other species are used for colouring sauces, such as the red A. jacksonii, with a range from eastern Canada to eastern Mexico.

Many species are of unknown edibility.


turning blue, grey or black when stained with Meltzer’s reagent


a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams


ring of tissue on a mushroom stem left by a torn partial veil


tiny projection on a spore where it is attached to the sterigma


(classified as of 2017) Apioperdon pyriforme (pear shaped puffball mushroom)


cup-shaped fruitbody of certain ascomycetes fungi


(describing a cap margin) fringed with veil fragments


(often used to describe scales) flattened down onto a surface

arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)

(a mycorrhiza) where fungi from the Glomeromycota penetrate the roots of a (usually herbaceous) plant and provide the plant with water and nutrients while the plant supplies sugars to the fungus


(describing a ring) flaring upwards and out


fruitbody of an ascomycete fungus


Class of fungi that produce their spores in sac-like cells called asci


sexual spores produced in the asci of ascomycetes fungi


(pl., asci) the spore-producing cell of an ascomycetes fruitbody


self digesting or liquefying – a characteristic of the inkcap fungi



fruitbody of a basidiomycete fungus


a - Class of fungi that produce their spores on basidia


large and diverse phylum of fungi (kingdom Fungi) that includes jelly and shelf fungi; mushrooms, puffballs, and stinkhorns; certain yeasts; and the rusts and smuts. Basidiomycota are typically filamentous fungi composed of hyphae.


sexual spores produced on the basidia of basidiomycetes fungi


(pl., basidia) spore-producing cell of a basidiomycete fungus


feeding on living cells of other organisms


Boletaceae are a family of mushroom-forming fungi, primarily characterised by small pores on the spore-bearing hymenial surface (at the underside of the mushroom), instead of gills as are found in most agarics. Nearly as widely distributed as the agarics, the family is renowned for hosting some prime edible species highly sought after by mushroom hunters worldwide, such as the cep or king bolete (Boletus edulis). A number of rare or threatened species are also present in the family, that have become the focus of increasing conservation concerns. As a whole, the typical members of the family are commonly known as boletes.

Boletes are a group of mushrooms reasonably safe for human consumption, as none of them are known to be deadly to adults. Edible bolete species are especially suitable for novice collectors, since they pose little danger of being confused with deadly poisonous mushrooms, such as deadly Amanita species which bear gills instead of pores in their hymenial surface. Some boletes are toxic and may cause gastrointestinal poisoning if consumed, but these are unlikely to be confused with popular edible species in the family.

The family has been the subject of extensive systematic revisions in recent years, as some of the early established genera (particularly Boletus, Leccinum and Xerocomus), have revealed to be highly polyphyletic, and the original number of genera within the family had been underestimated. As a result, several new species and genera have been described from Asia, Europe and North America, while many existing species have been transferred to different genera, in concordance with phylogenetic results.


The Boletales are an order of Agaricomycetes containing over 1300 species with a diverse array of fruiting body types. The boletes are the best known members of this group, and until recently, the Boletales were thought to only contain boletes. The Boletales are now known to contain distinct groups of agarics, gasteromycetes, and other fruiting-body types.

The Boletales are largely ectomycorrhizal fungi, hence are found mainly in or near woodlands. Certain species are parasitic rather than ectomycorrhizal. 


(describing a stem) with a swollen base



crowded together in a tuft or a cluster but not attached to each other


(describing a cap) bell shaped


top part of a basidiomycete mushroom that carries the fertile tissue


fungal fruitbody comprising stem, cap and gills


a cystidium on the stem of a mushroom


component of plant cell walls and of wood composed of glucose units


a cystidium on the edge of a mushroom gill


asexual spores formed by the breaking up of fungal hyphae


ash grey in color

clamp connection

swollen area formed around septum in a hypha during cell division


(usually describing a mushroom stem) club-shaped


Clitocybe is a genus of mushrooms characterized by white, off-white, buff, cream, pink, or light-yellow sporesgills running down the stem, and pale white to brown or lilac coloration. They are primarily saprotrophic, decomposing forest ground litter. There are estimated to be around 300 species in the widespread genus.[3]

Clitocybe means sloping head.

A few members of the genus are considered edible; many others are poisonous, containing the toxin muscarine among others. Distinguishing individual species of Clitocybe is generally prohibitively difficult to non-experts, requiring the analysis of microscopic characters. Therefore, with the exception of a few charismatic and readily identified members, Clitocybe mushrooms are rarely collected for consumption.


(when comparing parts of a fruitbody) being of the same color


the flesh of a fungal fruitbody


(describing a cap) domed without either a hump or a depression


growing on dung




a cobweb-like partial veil consisting of fine silky fibers


(describing a lichen) forming a crust on a substrate (tree, rock etc)


Cuphophyllus is a genus of agaric fungi in the family Hygrophoraceae. Cuphophyllus species belong to a group known as waxcaps in English, sometimes also waxy caps in North America or waxgills in New Zealand. In Europe, 


Cuphophyllus species are typical of waxcap grasslands, a declining habitat due to changing agricultural practices. As a result, four species, Cuphophyllus atlanticus (as C. canescens), colemannianus, C. lacmus, and C. lepidopus are of global conservation concern and are listed as "vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.


the surface layer of the cap or stem of a fruitbody


special sterile cell among the basidia on some fungi



(describing gills) running down the stem - as with Chanterelles


(describing a cap) where the central region is lower than the margin


(describing a ring) flaring downwards and out, like a skirt


obsolete term for a group fungi not known to reproduce sexually
(Molecular analysis can now determine their appropriate groups)


staining brick red or brown with Meltzer’s reagent


forking/divided into pairs – as in logical decision-making trees


a pair of closely associated, sexually compatible nuclei


(describing gills) widely spaced



(describing stem attachment to cap) offset to one side.


(a mycorrhiza) where the fungus forms sheathes around plant rootlets (often of a tree), growing between but not penetrating the cells of the plant root, and providing the plant with water and nutrients while the plant supplies sugars to the fungus


(describing gills) conspicuously notched near to the stem


mycorrhiza in which fungal hyphae penetrate cell walls of host plant


fungus living within a plant without causing visible symptoms of harm



with a covering of loose cotton-like scales


with a strong and offensive odor


(describing a lichen) shaped like a leaf


Fomes is a genus of perennial woody fungi in the family Polyporaceae. Species are typically hoof-shaped. New growth each season is added to the margin, resulting in a downward extension of the hymenium. This often results in a zonate appearance of the upper surface, that is, marked by concentric bands of color.


The Fomitopsidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. Most species are parasitic on woody plants, and tend to cause brown rots.[2] The name comes from Fomitopsis (meaning "looking like Fomes") + -aceae (a suffix used to form taxonomic family names).


Fomitopsis is a genus of more than 40 species of bracket fungi in the family Fomitopsidaceae.

The genus was circumscribed by Finnish mycologist Petter Karsten in 1881 with Fomitopsis pinicola as the type species.[2] Molecular analysis indicates that Fomitopsis belongs to the antrodia clade, which contains about 70 percent of brown-rot fungi.

This fungus, well known for its use by Ötzi the Iceman, was transferred to Fomitopsis in 2016.[5]

The whole genome sequence of Fomitopsis palustris was reported in 2017.

Fomitopsis species have fruit bodies that are mostly perennial, with forms ranging from sessile to effused-reflexed (partially crust-like and partially pileate). Fruit body texture is typically tough to woody, and the pore surface is white to tan or pinkish-colored with mostly small and regular pores. Microscopically, Fomitopsis has a dimitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae. The spores are hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, roughly spherical to cylindrical, and are negative in Melzer's reagent. Fomitopsis fungi cause a brown rot.


(describing gills) not attached to the stem


(describing a lichen) shaped like a shrub


A fungus (pl: fungi[2] or funguses[3]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom,[4] separately from the other eukaryotic kingdoms, which by one traditional classification include Plantae, Animalia, Protozoa, and Chromista.

A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Fungi, like animals, are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores (a few of which are flagellated), which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems. These and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (i.e. they form a monophyletic group), an interpretation that is also strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology (from the Greek μύκης mykes, mushroom). In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants.

Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and also parasites. They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment. They have long been used as a direct source of human food, in the form of mushrooms and truffles; as a leavening agent for bread; and in the fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.

The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, and morphologies ranging from unicellular aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at 2.2 million to 3.8 million species.[5] Of these, only about 148,000 have been described,[6] with over 8,000 species known to be detrimental to plants and at least 300 that can be pathogenic to humans.[7] Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christiaan Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. Phylogenetic studies published in the first decade of the 21st century have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla.


(describing a surface) covered in particles that look like grains of sand


(describing a stem) spindle-shaped, tapering at top and bottom


germ pore

thin region of spore wall via which spores can germinate


plates of tissue bearing the hymenium in an agaricoid fungus


(describing a surface) bald


spore-bearing tissue enclosed within fruitbodies of gasteromycetes


(describing a cap surface) covered with a slimy gelatinous layer


(describing a cap or stem surface) covered with small granules


a small oil-like drop visible (via a microscope) inside a fungal spore



amorphous (non-crystalline) polysaccharides in plant cell walls




covered with stiff bristle-like hairs


being the same throughout


clear (colourless) when viewed under a microscope


The Hygrophoraceae are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales. Originally conceived as containing white-spored, thick-gilled agarics, including Hygrophorus and Hygrocybe species, DNA evidence has extended the limits of the family, so it now contains not only agarics, but also basidiolichens and corticioid fungi.

Species are thus diverse and are variously ectomycorrhizal, lichenized, associated with mosses, or saprotrophic. The family contains 25 genera and over 600 species.[3] None is of any great economic importance, though fruit bodies of some Hygrocybe and Hygrophorus species are considered edible and may be collected for sale in local markets.


appearing translucent when wet, paler and more opaque when dry


fertile spore-bearing tissue (e.g. on mushroom gill or pore surfaces)


(pl., hyphae) filamentous thread of fungal mycelium



(describing a ring) located near the base of the stem




(describing a cap) rolled inwards at the margin






milky fluid that oozes from cut surfaces of Lactarius species


Leccinum is a genus of fungi in the family Boletaceae. It was the name given first to a series of fungi within the genus Boletus, then erected as a new genus last century. Their main distinguishing feature is the small, rigid projections (scabers) that give a rough texture to their stalks. The genus name was coined from the Italian Leccino, for a type of rough-stemmed bolete. The genus has a widespread distribution, especially in north temperate regions, and contains about 75 species.


organism comprising a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium


growing on wood


Lycoperdaceae, former family of fungi in the order Agaricales (phylum Basidiomycota, kingdom Fungi), now placed in the family Agaricaceae. Phylogenetic analyses have shown Lycoperdaceae to be a subgroup within Agaricaceae, though the group does not have a defined status in the taxonomic nomenclature.

Lycoperdaceae included about 160 species of earthstars and puffballs, which are found in soil or on decaying wood in grassy areas and woods. Many puffballs, named for the features of the fruiting body (basidiocarp), are edible before maturity, at which time the internal tissues become dry and powdery. Puffs of spores discharge when the fruiting structure is disturbed.

Lycoperdon is a genus of 50 cosmopolitan species of small common puffballs. L. perlatum (gemmatum) has spotlike scars on the surface and is edible only when young. These fungi are found in the woods or on sawdust in summer and autumn.

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Melanoleuca is a poorly known genus of saprotrophic mushrooms traditionally classified in the family Tricholomataceae. Most are small to medium sized, white, brown, ocher or gray with a cylindrical to subcylindrical stipe and white to pale yellowish gills. The basidiospores are ellipsoid and ornamented with amyloid warts. Melanoleuca is considered a difficult group to study due to their macroscopic similarities among species and the need of a thorough microscopic analysis to separate species. DNA studies have determined that this genus is closely related to Amanita and Pluteus and that it does not belong to the family Tricholomataceae.

As a genus Melanoleuca is quite distinctive, and it is not very hard to recognize a mushroom which belongs to it on sight. However the identification of its individual species is difficult due to a lack of clear macroscopic features; the delimiting characters used in descriptions and keys are such properties as the shape of cheilocystidia (if any are present), the size and ornamentation of the spores, and the structure of the pileipellis. Furthermore these characters may be very variable and overlap between taxa or depend on personal experience. Mycologists have up to now had considerable difficulty in establishing a widely accepted classification below the genus level


(often describing a mushroom cap) covered with slime


body of a fungus, most of which is underground or hidden within wood


the fungal component of a lichen or of a mycorrhizal partnership


the study of fungi


the eating of fungi


a person who loves fungi


a person who fears or loathes fungi


structure by which a fungus and a plant exchange nutrients mutually


a large and commonly encountered group within the slime moulds



feeding by killing and consuming (part of) another organism


not turning blue, grey or black when stained with Meltzer’s reagent



a differentiated (separate) structure within a cell



process whereby an organism feeds at the expense of another (host)


The Paxillaceae are a family of mushroom-forming fungi bearing close affinity to the boletes. Collectively, the family contains nine genera and 78 species. The type genus is Paxillus, containing fungi with decurrent gills, and Gyrodon, which has members with decurrent pores, among others. French mycologist René Maire had erected the family in 1902, placing it between the agarics and boletes and recognizing the groups' similarities with the latter group

Maire's usage of the name was later deemed to be invalid and the genus authority is attributed to Johannes Paulus Lotsy. Molecular research confirms the relations of Gyrodon, with the decurrent-pored mushroom G. lividus, Paragyrodon, with the type species P. sphaerosporus, and Paxillus as sister groups, together lying near the base of a phylogenetic tree from which the genus Boletus arises. The name Gyrodontaceae, published by Belgian botanist Paul Heinemann in 1951, is considered synonymous with Paxillaceae.


Paxillus is a genus of mushrooms of which most are known to be poisonous or inedible. Species include Paxillus involutus (brown roll rim) and Paxillus vernalis.


he Polyporaceae are a family of poroid fungi belonging to the Basidiomycota. The flesh of their fruit bodies varies from soft (as in the case of the dryad's saddle illustrated) to very tough. Most members of this family have their hymenium (fertile layer) in vertical pores on the underside of the caps, but some of them have gills (e.g. Panus) or gill-like structures (such as Daedaleopsis, whose elongated pores form a corky labyrinth). Many species are brackets, but others have a definite stipe – for example, Polyporus badius.

Most of these fungi have white spore powder but members of the genus Abundisporus have colored spores and produce yellowish spore prints. Cystidia are absent.


The Polyporales are an order of about 1800 species of fungi in the division Basidiomycota. The order includes some (but not all) polypores as well as many corticioid fungi and a few agarics (mainly in the genus Lentinus). Many species within the order are saprotrophic, most of them wood-rotters. Some genera, such as Ganoderma and Fomes, contain species that attack living tissues and then continue to degrade the wood of their dead hosts. Those of economic importance include several important pathogens of trees and a few species that cause damage by rotting structural timber. Some of the Polyporales are commercially cultivated and marketed for use as food items or in traditional Chinese medicine.

partial veil

protective membrane covering gills during development of a fruitbody


egg-like spore capsules in bird’s-nest fungi (Nidulariaceae)


outer wall of a fungus, especially a gasteromycete (e.g. a puffball)


flask-shaped chambers containing asci within pyrenomycetes fungi


photosynthesizing component (alga or cyanobacterium) of a lichen


process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water to sugars


(pl., pilei) the umbrella-shaped cap on the top of a mushroom stem


a cystidium on a gill surface


the orifices of the tubes of polypore fungi via which spores emerge


covered with a bloom (often pale, like a fine layer of chalk dust)


a tap-root-like extension at the base of a mushroom stem


(describing a surface) covered with fine short hairs




fruitbody that lies flat on the substrate with its hymenium outermost


(describing a stem, notably of a bolete) marked with a net-like pattern


a root-like mycelial strand comprising bunched parallel hyphae


membranous remains of the partial veil attached to a stem


brownish red


Russula is a very large genus composed of around 750 worldwide species of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. They are typically common, fairly large, and brightly colored – making them one of the most recognizable genera among mycologists and mushroom collectors. Their distinguishing characteristics include usually brightly coloured caps, a white to dark yellow spore print, brittle, attached gills, an absence of latex, and absence of partial veil or volva tissue on the stem.


Microscopically, the genus is characterised by the amyloid ornamented spores and flesh (trama) composed of spherocysts. Members of the related genus Lactarius have similar characteristics but emit a milky latex when their gills are broken. The genus was described by Christian Hendrik Persoon in 1796.


The Russulaceae are a diverse family of fungi in the order Russulales, with roughly 1,900 known species and a worldwide distribution. They comprise the brittlegills and the milk-caps, well-known mushroom-forming fungi that include some edible species. These gilled mushrooms are characterised by the brittle flesh of their fruitbodies.

In addition to these typical agaricoid forms, the family contains species with fruitbodies that are laterally striped (pleurotoid), closed (secotioid or gasteroid), or crust-like (corticioid). Molecular phylogenetics has demonstrated close affinities between species with very different fruitbody types and has discovered new, distinct lineages.

An important group of root-symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests and shrublands around the world includes Lactifluus, Multifurca, Russula, and Lactarius. The crust-forming genera Boidinia, Gloeopeniophorella, and Pseudoxenasma, all wood-decay fungi, have basal positions in the family.


The Russulales are an order of the Agaricomycetes, (which include the agaric genera Russula and Lactarius and their polyporoid and corticioid relatives). According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the order consists of 12 families, 80 genera, and 1767 species. According to Species Fungorum (January 2016), the order contains 13 families, 117 genera (16 not assigned to a family), and 3,060 species.

Russuloid agarics represent an independent evolutionary line of agarics, not directly related to the Agaricales.

This group also includes a number of russuloid hypogeous fungi, polypores such as Bondarzewia, some tooth fungi (e.g. Auriscalpium vulgare), and club fungi e.g. Artomyces. Basidiospores in this group are typically ornamented with amyloid warts or reticulation but a few exceptions are known, e.g. Heterobasidion annosum. The genus Clavicorona was often treated in the Russulales, but its type species, C. taxophila, is in the Agaricales. The remaining species are retained in the Russulales in the genus Artomyces.



an organism that obtains its nutrients from dead organic material


(describing a stem or cap surface) rough with scale-like projections


(describing hyphae) partitioned by cross walls known as septa


(pl., septa) a cross wall separating cells of a hyphal thread


(describing gill margins) with saw-toothed edges


without a stalk


(describing gills) with a notch near the point of attachment to the stem

slime molds

a group of fungus-like organisms that use spores to reproduce


globose hyphal cells in the Russulaceae and certain other fungi


reproductive structure of a fungus, usually a single cell


fungal fruitbody


(describing the surface of a cap or a stem) covered with scales


(describing the surface of a cap or a stem) covered with tiny scales




(pl., sterigmata) prong at top of basidium on which a spore develops


stem of a mushroom


(describing a fruitbody) having a stem


(describing a cap) with fine radiating lines or furrows around margin


(describing gills) running just a short distance down the stem


almost spherical


(describing a surface) somewhat or finely woolly


deeply furrowed


(describing a ring) located near the top of the stem



the - Classification of organisms based on their natural relationships


(pl., thalli) the body of a fungus or a lichen


densely woolly, velvety, or thickly covered with soft hairs


the flesh or context of a fungal fruitbody’s cap, gills or stem


The Tricholomataceae are a large family of mushrooms within the Agaricales. Originally a classic "wastebasket taxon", the family included any white-, yellow-, or pink-spored genera in the Agaricales not already classified as belonging to e.g. the Amanitaceae, Lepiotaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Pluteaceae, or Entolomataceae.

The name derives from the Greek trichos (τριχος) meaning hair and loma (λωμα) meaning fringe or border, although not all members display this feature.


ending abruptly as if chopped off


spore-bearing cylindrical structures of boletes and polypores



(describing a cap) having a navel-like central depression


a raised central mound (often conical with a rounded top)


(describing a cap) having a raised central mound

universal veil

a protective membrane that initially surrounds an entire fruitbody


rust fungi (an order within the Basidiomycota)


smut fungi (a - Class within the Basidiomycota)



(describing a stem) swollen at or near to the middle


(describing spores) covered with small rounded warts


the colour of pale red wine


slimy or sticky (at least when moist)


remains of the universal veil found at stem base of some fungi




(usually describing a cap) marked with concentric color bands


a - Class of simple fungi whose hyphae generally lack cross walls


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